Countries in Banking Crises
data.frame identifying which of 70 countries had a
banking crisis each year 1800:2010. The first column is
year. The remaining columns carry the names of the
countries; those columns are 1 for years with banking
crises and 0 otherwise.
This file was created using the following command:
bankingCrises <- readFinancialCrisisFiles(FinancialCrisisFiles)
This is documented further in the help file for
This is an update of a subset of the data used to create
Figure 10.1. Capital Mobility and the Incidence of
Banking Crises, All Countries, 1800-2008, Reinhart and
Rogoff (2009, p. 156).
The general upward trend visible in a plot of these data
may be attributed to at least two different factors:
(1) The gradual increase in the proportion of human labor
that is monetized.
(2) An increase in the general ability of cronies of
those in power to gamble with other people's money in
forming and bankrupting financial institutions. The
marked feature of this plot is the virtual absence
of banking crises during the period of the Bretton Woods
agreement, 1944 to 1971. This period ended when US
President Nixon in effect canceled the Bretton Woods
agreement by taking the US off the silver standard.
Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff (2009) This Time Is
Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, Princeton U. Pr.
numberOfCrises <- rowSums(bankingCrises[-1], na.rm=TRUE)
plot(bankingCrises$year, numberOfCrises, type='b')# Write to a file for Wikimedia Commons
plot(bankingCrises$year, numberOfCrises, type='b', cex.axis=2,
las=1, xlab='', ylab='', bty='n', cex=0.5)
abline(v=c(1945, 1971), lty='dashed', col='blue')
text(1958, 14, 'Bretton Woods', srt=90, cex=2, col='blue')
Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.