# R Dataset / Package HistData / OldMaps

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## Visual Summaries

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Documentation

On this Picostat.com statistics page, you will find information about the OldMaps data set which pertains to Latitudes and Longitudes of 39 Points in 11 Old Maps. The OldMaps data set is found in the HistData R package. You can load the OldMaps data set in R by issuing the following command at the console data("OldMaps"). This will load the data into a variable called OldMaps. If R says the OldMaps data set is not found, you can try installing the package by issuing this command install.packages("HistData") and then attempt to reload the data. If you need to download R, you can go to the R project website. You can download a CSV (comma separated values) version of the OldMaps R data set. The size of this file is about 14,701 bytes.

## Latitudes and Longitudes of 39 Points in 11 Old Maps

### Description

The data set is concerned with the problem of aligning the coordinates of points read from old maps (1688 - 1818) of the Great Lakes area. 39 easily identifiable points were selected in the Great Lakes area, and their (lat, long) coordinates were recorded using a grid overlaid on each of 11 old maps, and using linear interpolation.

It was conjectured that maps might be systematically in error in five key ways: (a) constant error in latitude; (b)constant error in longitude; (c) proportional error in latitude; (d)proportional error in longitude; (e) angular error from a non-zero difference between true North and the map's North.

One challenge from these data is to produce useful analyses and graphical displays that relate to these characteristics or to other aspects of the data.

### Usage

data(OldMaps)

### Format

A data frame with 468 observations on the following 6 variables, giving the latitude and longitude of 39 points recorded from 12 sources (Actual + 11 maps).

point

a numeric vector

col

Column in the table a numeric vector

name

Name of the map maker, using Actual for the true coordinates of the points. A factor with levels Actual Arrowsmith Belin Cary Coronelli D'Anville} \code{Del'Isle Lattre Melish Mitchell Popple

year

Year of the map

lat

Latitude

long

Longitude

### Details

Some of the latitude and longitude values are inexplicably negative. It is probable that this is an error in type settting, because the table footnote says "* denotes that interpolation accuracy is not good," yet no "*"s appear in the body of the table.

### Source

Andrews, D. F., and Herzberg, A. M. (1985). Data: A Collection of Problems from Many fields for the Student and Research Worker. New York: Springer, Table 10.1. The data were obtained from http://www.stat.duke.edu/courses/Spring01/sta114/data/Andrews/T10.1.

### Examples

data(OldMaps)
## maybe str(OldMaps) ; plot(OldMaps) ...with(OldMaps, plot(abs(long),abs(lat), pch=col, col=colors()[point]))

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Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.

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