On this Picostat.com statistics page, you will find information about the Quarrels data set which pertains to Statistics of Deadly Quarrels. The Quarrels data set is found in the HistData R package. You can load the Quarrels data set in R by issuing the following command at the console data("Quarrels"). This will load the data into a variable called Quarrels. If R says the Quarrels data set is not found, you can try installing the package by issuing this command install.packages("HistData") and then attempt to reload the data. If you need to download R, you can go to the R project website. You can download a CSV (comma separated values) version of the Quarrels R data set. The size of this file is about 242,150 bytes.
Statistics of Deadly Quarrels
The Statistics Of Deadly Quarrels by
Lewis Fry Richardson (1960) is one of the earlier attempts
at quantification of historical conflict behavior.
The data set contains 779 dyadic deadly quarrels that cover a
time period from 1809 to 1949. A quarrel consists of one
pair of belligerents, and is identified by its
beginning date and magnitude (log 10 of the number of deaths).
Neither actor in a quarrel is identified by name.
Because Richardson took a dyad of belligerents as his unit,
a given war, such as World War I or World War II comprises
multiple observations, for all pairs of belligerents.
For example, there are forty-four pairs of belligerents coded for
World War I.
For each quarrel, the nominal variables
include the type of quarrel, as well as political, cultural, and economic
similarities and dissimilarities between the pair of combatants.
A data frame with 779 observations on the following 84 variables.
V84: Id sequence
V1: Begin date of quarrel
V2: Nation vs nation
V3: Nation vs colony
V4: Revolution or civil war
V5: Nation vs gp in other nation
V6: Grp vs grp (same nation)
V7: Grp vs grp (between nations)
V8: Num grps agst which fighting
V9: Num months fighting
V10: Num pairs in whole matrix
V11: Num mons for all in mtrx
V12: Log (killed) matrix
V13: Total killed for matrix
V14: Gp sent goods to other
V15: Gp puts obstacles to goods
V16: Present intermarriages
V17: Intermarriages banned
V18: Similar body characteristics
V19: Difference in body characteristics
V20: Similarity of customs (dress)
V21: Difference of customs (dress)
V22: Common level of wealth
V23: Difference in wealth
V24: Similar marriage cusomst
V25: Different marriage customs
V26: Similar religeon or philosophy of life
V27: Religeon or philisophy felt different
V28: General philanthropy
V29: Restricted immigrations
V30: Common mother tongue
V31: Different languages
V32: Similar science, arts
V34: Ignorant of other/both
V35: Personal liberty similar
V36: More personal liberty
V37: Common government
V38: Years since common govt established
V39: Belligerents fought previously
V40: Years since belligerents fought
V41: Chronic figthing between belligerents
V42: Autocrats personal friends
V43: Leaders personal resentment
V44: Annoyingly different legal systems
V45: Policy of nonintervention
V46: Led by 3rd group to conflict
V47: Supported others enemy
V48: Attacked ally of other
V49: Rivals territory concess
V50: Rivals trade
V51: Church civil power
V52: Policy not extending ter
V53: Desired territory
V54: Wanted habitation
V55: Desired minerals
V56: Wanted strategic stronghold
V57: Taxed other
V58: Wanted loot
V59: Objected to war
V60: Enjoyed fighting
V61: Elated by strong pride
V62: Insufficient land for population
V63: Fought only for pay
V64: Desired to join winners
V65: Quarrel desired by other
V66: Issued of propaganda to third parties
V67: Offered protection
V68: Sympathized under control
V69: Owed money to others
V70: Had fought as allies
V71: Years since fought as allies
V72: Had intermingled on territory
V73: Interbreeding between groups
V74: Issued propaganda to other group
V75: Ordered other to obey
V76: Commercial enterprises
V77: Felt stronger
V78: Competed succesfully intellectual occ
V79: Government insecure
V80: Preparations for war
V81: Regional error measure
V82: Casualty error measure
V83: Auxiliaries in service of nation at war
In the original data set obtained from ICPSR, variables were
V84. These were renamed to make them more
ID was moved to the first position,
but otherwise the order of variables is the same.
In many of the
0 is used to indicate
"irrelevant to quarrel". This refers to those relations that
Richardson found absent or irrelevant to the particular
quarrel, and did not subsequently mention.
See the original codebook at
for details not contained here.
Lewis F. Richardson, (1960).
The Statistics Of Deadly Quarrels. (Edited by Q. Wright and C. C. Lienau).
Pittsburgh: Boxwood Press.
Rummel, Rudolph J. (1967), "Dimensions of Dyadic War, 1820-1952." Journal of
Conflict Resolution. 11, (2), 176 - 183.
Dataset imported from https://www.r-project.org.