Swiss Fertility and Socioeconomic Indicators (1888) Data
Standardized fertility measure and socio-economic indicators for each
of 47 French-speaking provinces of Switzerland at about 1888.
A data frame with 47 observations on 6 variables, each of which
is in percent, i.e., in [0, 100].
[,1] || Fertility || Ig, ‘common standardized
[,2] || Agriculture|| % of males involved in agriculture
[,3] || Examination|| % draftees receiving highest mark
on army examination
[,4] || Education || % education beyond primary school for draftees.
[,5] || Catholic || % ‘catholic’ (as opposed to ‘protestant’).
[,6] || Infant.Mortality|| live births who live less than 1
All variables but ‘Fertility’ give proportions of the
(paraphrasing Mosteller and Tukey):
Switzerland, in 1888, was entering a period known as the
demographic transition; i.e., its fertility was beginning to
fall from the high level typical of underdeveloped countries.
The data collected are for 47 French-speaking “provinces” at
Here, all variables are scaled to [0, 100], where in the
original, all but
"Catholic" were scaled to [0, 1].
Files for all 182 districts in 1888 and other years have been available at
They state that variables
are averages for 1887, 1888 and 1889.
Project “16P5”, pages 549–551 in
Mosteller, F. and Tukey, J. W. (1977)
Data Analysis and Regression: A Second Course in Statistics.
Addison-Wesley, Reading Mass.
indicating their source as
“Data used by permission of Franice van de Walle. Office of
Population Research, Princeton University, 1976. Unpublished data
assembled under NICHD contract number No 1-HD-O-2077.”
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
The New S Language.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
pairs(swiss, panel = panel.smooth, main = "swiss data",
col = 3 + (swiss$Catholic > 50))
summary(lm(Fertility ~ . , data = swiss))